At NASA Space Flight Center

Hubble Telescope News

The Hubble Space Telescope just calculated the distance to the most far-out galaxy ever measured, providing scientists with a look deep into the history of the universe.

The far-away galaxy, named GN-z11, existed a mere 400 million years after the Big Bang, or about 13.3 billion years ago. Because the light from such a distant galaxy must travel huge distances to reach Earth, scientists are seeing the galaxy as it looked over 13 billion years ago. You can see the galaxy in this video from the Hubble Telescope team.

"We've taken a major step back in time, beyond what we'd ever expected to be able to do with Hubble. We managed to look back in time to measure the distance to a galaxy when the universe was only 3 percent of its current age, " Pascal Oesch, an astronomer at Yale University and lead author of the research paper announcing the new measurement, said in a statement from the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre in Germany. [Celestial Photos: Hubble Space Telescope's Latest Cosmic Views]

Measuring the distance to an extremely far-off cosmic object poses many challenges to scientists, including the fact that the universe is expanding, and has been expanding for nearly all of time. Any distance measurement must take into account exactly how much the space between objects has stretched since an object's light left and traveled to Earth.

This can get quite complicated. So instead of talking about the distance to cosmic objects in terms of miles, astronomers and astrophysicists will more often refer to when the object existed in the history of the universe.

To determine this for GN-z11, scientists measured the degree to which the light from the galaxy has been shifted by the expanding universe, known as redshift. A higher redshift indicates a more distant object. Previously, the highest redshift ever measured was from the galaxy EGSY8p7, whose redshift was 8.68. The GN-z11 galaxy's newly measured redshift is a whopping 11.1.

The Dark Ages

"The previous record-holder was seen in the middle of the epoch when starlight from primordial galaxies was beginning to heat and lift a fog of cold, hydrogen gas, " said Rychard Bouwens from the University of Leiden in the Netherlands and a co-author on the new paper. "This transitional period is known as the re-ionisation era. GN-z11 is observed 150 million years earlier, near the very beginning of this transition in the evolution of the Universe."


This illustration shows a timeline of the universe, stretching from the present day (left) back to the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago (right). The newly discovered galaxy GN-z11 is the most distant galaxy discovered so far, at a redshift of 11.1, which corresponds to 400 million years after the Big Bang. The previous record holder's position is also identified

NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)

GN-z11 is 25 times smaller than the Milky Way galaxy and has only about 1 percent the total stellar mass of the Milky Way, observations by Hubble at the Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed, the statement said.

"It's amazing that a galaxy so massive existed only 200 million to 300 million years after the very first stars started to form, " said Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz, a coauthor on the new research paper. "It takes really fast growth, producing stars at a huge rate, to have formed a galaxy that is a billion solar masses so soon."

GNz11 is forming stars at 20 times the current rate of the Milky Way, the statement said, which is part of why the distant galaxy is bright enough to be observed by telescopes like Hubble and Spitzer.

Marijn Franx, a member of the team from the University of Leiden, said in the statement that previous work suggested galaxies as bright as GN-z11 should not have been able to form at such an early point in the universe's history.

"The discovery of GN-z11 showed us that our knowledge about the early universe is still very restricted, " said Ivo Labbe, also of the University of Leiden and a co-author on the paper. "How GN-z11 was created remains somewhat of a mystery for now. Probably we are seeing the first generations of stars forming around black holes."

The new research paper will be published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Follow Calla Cofield . Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on

How long to cook a stuffed turkey what are symptoms of kidney disease How to help a migraine? what does persuasive mean what does ach mean in banking what does bludgeoned mean How to hang a picture on the wall tricks How to do french tips How to drop a pin How to open a roth ira? what does aquarius mean How to chose the correct word tips what are no see ums How to read an egg cleanse? what does systolic and diastolic mean How to pronounce qatar? what is affiliate marketing and how does it work How to get rid of a cold sore fast on your lip? what does atropine do How to rebuild trust in a relationship? How to turn off smoke alarm? How to turn off flash notification on iphone How long does ios 15 take to install? How to do tricks in alto what does cpl mean When you are alone the mind plays terrible tricks on you Tips and tricks on how to iron like a pro How to take off gelly tips How to make french fries? what are maintenance calories How to do lunges? How to be successful what does cat pee smell like Airlanes why are wing tips bent up How to download twitch clips? what time does bob evans open what are comps in real estate what does or nurse do what does contingent mean on a real estate listing what does squirt smell like Tips for increasing security when playing online games what does kos mean How to verify paypal acccount tricks How to learn tricks skateboard My eyes play tricks on me when reading what does bonjour mean in french How to make guacamole? How to make rails in minecraft? what does plt mean in a blood test How to build credit score How to qualify for medicaid what does captcha mean what does pmh mean in medical terms what does cve stand for How to pronounce hijab what does acid feel like what does omni mean lgbtq Masked magician who revealed how magic tricks were done? How to anal douche what does pineapple mean How to say yes in spanish French press how to use How to become a voice actor what does heart rate variability mean what does burnout mean Why are skateboards for tricks what does make amends mean How to improve gut health naturally Who buys used welding tips what does pedagogy mean what does the name noel mean How to find posts you liked on instagram 2022 How to create youtube channel? How to restart apple tv what does st mean in weight what that mean what do pink flamingos mean How to grow roses from cuttings How to hair tips How to watch coda How to open talenti gelato? what does conquer mean what does lds mean How are tips distributed at longhorn steakhouse How to block pop ups Tips on how to save money How to build a pond? Tips from experts how arrive How to make homemade alfredo sauce? 5 love languages what are they what muscles does the stationary bike work How to get rid of period bloating? How to tell how far away lightning is? How to get a virus off your phone How to make a pop up card Movie about a man who get amnishia and women tricks him to think he is her husband what does a anesthesiologist do How to shave vagina? How to do cat eyeliner Tips for writing when you have depression How do static electricity tricks work How to make overnight oats? What magic tricks can you do with paper plates what does kinks mean what does sns mean According to ishamel, what three tricks did the gods play on humankind? What is a person called that does tricks what does it mean when your kidneys hurt what does remote work mean what does hinder mean How to descale keurig? How long to cook a ham in the oven? How to make egg drop soup? what does deferred payment mean How to keep mosquitoes away How to drop tips on a set of trees in r what does it mean when your left palm itches How to germinate marijuana seeds

Share this article

Related Posts

Sky and Telescope News
Sky and Telescope News
News on Astronomy
News on Astronomy
Galaxy News
Galaxy News

Latest Posts
Newest space discoveries
Newest space…
This artist s concept…
Galileo Science
Galileo Science
Remember those two Galileo…
New discoveries in space exploration
New discoveries…
Each year there’s evidence…
Accomplishments of Galileo
Total Orbits of Jupiter:…
Sky and Telescope News
Sky and Telescope…
So why don t we call these…
Featured posts
  • Sky and Telescope News
  • News on Astronomy
  • Galaxy News
  • Latest News on Astronomy
  • Recent News on Space
  • Space and Astronomy News
  • Astronomy News UK
  • New Astronomy News
  • Astrophysics News
Copyright © 2023 l All rights reserved.