The Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor Galileo Galilei lived from 1564 to 1642. Galileo was a tireless experimenter and made many discoveries. He is credited with several important inventions, including the geometric compass, thermometer and pendulum clock. Although he did not invent the telescope, as he is popularly thought to have, he did adopt it early and improve it.
The Geometric Compass
Galileo introduced a geometric and military compass in 1597 while living in the Italian city of Padua. The compass had two legs, each having seven proportional lines, joined by a quadrant marked with four separate scales. The design helped users perform arithmetic and geometric calculations, including taking square and cube roots. It also allowed one to calculate interest, draw polygons and determine the areas and volumes of different shapes. Galileo personally instructed several European sovereigns on the use of his compass. He earned a significant profit from this invention.
Thermometers of various designs date back to antiquity. Galileo contributed a design in 1593 that relied on the changes in the relative density of materials as they are heated or cooled. He fashioned a small flask with a long, narrow neck, warmed it with his hands and inverted the flask neck into a water-filled vessel. When he removed his hands, the water in the vessel began to rise into the flask's neck and rose well above the vessel's water line. The effect was due to the temperature drop and density increase of the air in the flask once Galileo removed his warm hands. The condensing air created a vacuum that drew up the water from the vessel. Later, he added graduation marks to measure the temperature.
Galileo was intrigued by the periodic motion of pendulums and began publishing serious studies in 1602. He discovered that the amplitude of the pendulum's swing had no effect on the period of time it takes to complete one cycle - a property called isochronism. At age 77, Galileo had an epiphany whereby he realized that a pendulum could be hooked to an escape mechanism to create an accurate clock. The then-blind Galileo worked with his son Vincenzio to draw the clock mechanism, creating the earliest known design for a pendulum clock. Christiaan Huygens built the first working version in 1657.
The First Microscopes
Some early historians credited Galileo with inventing the compound microscope in the 1590s, although later experts have pointed to Janssen's microscope as predating Galileo's. A hollow fixed barrel held a concave lens at one end and a concave lens at the other. The design was similar to that of telescopes of the day, except that the focal length of the eye objective was smaller. At best, Galileo can be credited with the idea of using a telescope to magnify microscopic things.
Some of Galileo's other inventions include: a magnification device that made telescopes twenty times more powerful; a one-horsepower pump to raise water; an oar placement design for a ship's galley in which the oar acted as a lever against the water, which behaved as a fulcrum; and a design for an accurate hydrostatic balance for weighing things in air and water.thinking in react thinking juice thinking jobs thinking jokes thinking juice back bling thinking jobs for fiction thinking journal thinking juice wrld thinking jobs for reading thinking kid thinking kid clipart thinking kermit thinking k9 thinking kid gif thinking of you thinking kid cartoon thinking kid image thinking like a historian thinking like a mountain thinking like a scientist thinking like a sociologist means that you thinking like an economist thinking like a lawyer thinking like an engineer thinking logically thinking meme thinking maps thinking man thinking man statue thinking music thinking man tavern thinking maps templates thinking meaning thinking nf lyrics thinking nation thinking noodles thinking negative thinking nf thinking noun synonym thinking notes thinking necessarily involves thinking out loud thinking out loud lyrics thinking of you images thinking of you quotes thinking of you gif thinking of you messages thinking of you cards thinking putty thinking person thinking pinoy thinking positive thinking pose thinking png thinking problem thinking process thinking quotes thinking questions thinking questions for kids thinking questions to ask thinking quotes short thinking quickly thinking quotes for instagram thinking quantitatively thinking routines thinking rhetorically thinking rationally thinking reaction meme thinking riddles thinking really hard thinking reeds thinking rationally meaning thinking synonym thinking statue thinking skills thinking strategies thinking styles thinking stock photo thinking strategically thinking storm thinking traps thinking tree thinking tree spirits thinking too much thinking thesaurus thinking thoughts and feeling feelings thinking traps worksheet thinking thursday thinking up thinking upstream thinking under the influence thinking up synonym thinking upstream nursing thinking u can live without me lyrics thinking up a master plan thinking up a song about coraline thinking vs feeling thinking vs feeling mbti thinking vs feeling personality thinking verb synonym thinking verbs thinking vs feeling examples thinking vs feeling test thinking voice thinking with type thinking with mathematical models answers thinking with portals thinking with type pdf thinking with your eyes thinking with mathematical models thinking woman thinking words thinking you could live without me lyrics thinking you are better than others thinking you have a disease thinking you're smarter than you are thinking you're better than others thinking you could live