New research of NASA
A novel and potentially testable theory of how life arose on earth, first advanced more than 25 years ago by Michael Russell, a research scientist in Planetary Chemistry and Astrobiology at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was further developed in a recent paper published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (PTRSL-B)—the world's first science journal—by Russell, Wolfgang Nitschke, a team leader at the National Center for Scientific Research in Marseille, France; and Elbert Branscomb, an affiliate faculty member at the Institute for Genomic Biology (IGB) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
This just-released paper, together with a companion paper by Russell and Nitschke in the same journal issue significantly advance the hypothesis and bring it substantially closer to experimental testing—an effort already underway by Russell and his collaborators who are developing experimental model systems that can recreate, and test, the essential principals of the theory.
Notably, the Russell theory provides potential explanations for several puzzling aspects of how life works, including, for example, how it taps into and exploits sources of energy.
This strange energy conversion process works by using externally supplied energy to constantly pump a lot more protons onto one side of a biological membrane than the other and then having them flow back "downhill" immediately, but only through a turbine-like molecular engine which creates a chemical fuel called ATP; a fuel that cells "burn" in order to power vital cell processes. This process would be an exact parallel to the hydroelectric generation of electrical energy if some other source of energy was first required to pump water up hill behind a dam to then flow down to drive turbines. The question is why is this strange and seemingly inefficient process used?
Russell's theory suggests an answer: when life began it wasn't necessary to pump protons, the proton gradient was already there for the taking. Russell's theory sees life coming into being as a natural physical consequence of a geochemical process called serpentinization that produced, for free, the system's major components: cell-like compartments surrounded by membranes, the right proton concentration differences between the inside and outside of these mineral membranes, and primitive, "mineral-based" forms of the "turbine" motors needed to make a molecule like ATP.
The process of serpentinization occurs when water gravitates down cracks in hot, newly formed ocean crust, where it reacts chemically with the minerals in the rocks in a reaction that produces an extremely alkaline (pH ~13) effluent, rich in hydrogen and methane and the metal molybdenum, so important as a catalyst in life. This effluent is then driven back to the surface where, in the ocean of early earth, it contacted cooler, acidic (~ pH 5.5), and CO2-rich water to create precipitates that form chimney-like submarine towers.
These precipitates are highly structured with a myriad of cell-like compartments surrounded by mineral membranes—akin to our own. And across these membranes, separating acidic ocean and alkaline effluent, stood essentially the same proton gradient—in strength and direction—that the cells of all living things on earth are constantly recreating and then immediately using today.Where can you purchase a book explaing some of harry houdini greatest tricks How to tell if a necklace is real gold what does dx mean How to play farkle How to help morning sickness How to get your first period in 5 minutes what does a mole on your face mean How to cook eggs what does kim kardashian do How to draw wind? How long to steam lobster How to reverse search an image? Tips and tricks on how to get rid of a stuffy nose Tips on how to induce labour What butterlfy knife tricks are in cs go How to become a realtor what happens if carbon dioxide levels are too low what is main idea mean How to prevent skirt from flying tricks How to do cool skateboard tricks youtube How to sign up for doordash what do the tarot cards mean what are bitcoins worth today what kind of waves are sound waves How to cook ribs in a crock pot what does brittle mean How to make a golem in minecraft How to get tips in fifa 19 in dision rivals How to prepare hand for card tricks what does the slang word woke mean How to build a closet How to calculate inflation rate? what does nice drip mean How to pop your lower back? what time does whole foods close How to cook pork rib tips on the stove what does high bnp mean What japanese restaurant has the knife tricks How to treat flu? How to make rids with out the bone pork spare rib tips what does pcp mean How much does it cost to get your nails done what does philosophy mean what does pero mean in spanish How to fry rice? How to write a recommendation letter How to get water out of your ear what sports are on today Tips on how to win more on online slots How to fold clothes for packing what sound does a raccoon make what does oatmeal do for you How to verify cash app? Singing tips how to michael jackson tone How can wake up tips person How many dak prescott ibterceptions were tips Batman can not catch a thief who tricks time what does curse of vanishing do After you fry the beef tips how long do you bake them at what temp? Cooking tips with uncle rob how to cook a steak How to make the best paper airplane Why arent delivery fees tips what does chino mean Cool tricks to do with crutches how to How to do tricks with hand skateboards How to lower my electric bill tips How to change sensitive content on twitter? How long for paint to dry? How to become a dispatcher? what does jawn mean How to apply glitter polish to nail tips Tips for hairdressers how much what does lt stand for How to create a folder on mac? How to teach mini pig tricks what are dead pixels what does arthropod mean How to clip on pc? what are the 7 habits of highly effective people How long does a check take to clear? How to get straight hair How to pump at work tips How to stop stomach noises Why are my cannabis leaves turning yellow at the tips what does it mean when a cat purrs How to share wordle on facebook? what does matcha do what does the purple crystal mean How to decorate a living room? How to disable facebook? How to make a video slow motion what does the word christmas mean How do i get to work Tips when representing yourself in an unemployment appeal hearing what does pin to start mean How to get blood out of sheets? How to do google gravity tricks How long sirloin tips what does sole custody mean How to do tricks on motocross madness what does the tesseract do what does ce mean How to do air tricks in spider man ps4 How to calculate the mean How to store flour long term what does 710 friendly mean Awesome card tricks and how to do them How to make granola The children tell maria they played horrible tricks on their past governesses because why what does it mean to be meta Video meme where kid playing football tricks other team false start How to cook corned beef and cabbage? what does crunchy mom mean How to change tips seamless what does the mean in lgbtq How to open a safe? Where to buy nail tips near me what do tonsil stones mean